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  1. #91
    Join Date
    30th January 2016
    Location
    US > OK > NE
    Posts
    3,476
    Three dimensional cams. I love the Mk1/Mk1a.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rangek...ical_functions for more fun computer history.


  2. #92
    Join Date
    31st December 2009
    Location
    Las Cruces, NM
    Posts
    1,420
    Quote Originally Posted by Handeman View Post
    I learned a little about those types of computers and how they work while in the Navy in '81. The Fire Control computer for the 16" guns on the Battleships were still analog computers with the synchros, servos, electrical adders, etc. Those solved the fire control problem for the main guns and were in use well before WWII. I don't know if they solved differential equations, but they took a lot of inputs from dials and switches and instantly aimed the guns.
    Even the simplest PID servo controller solves a 2nd-order differential equation. The fire control systems started out fairly basic but evolved to include many more inputs, including ship-motion gyros, windage, etc. I was lucky to take two courses from Richard Miller in the late 70's. He worked for General Electric in Schenectady NY before and during WWII designing controllers for gun turrets. We had lab benches just as crazy looking as the one Winston posted (slightly more "modern"), plus large motors bolted to the floor. Still have the book he wrote and have used it over the years.

    -John

    NAR/TRA L3
    My LinkedIn Profile

  3. #93
    Join Date
    31st January 2009
    Posts
    4,623
    Quote Originally Posted by Handeman View Post
    I learned a little about those types of computers and how they work while in the Navy in '81. The Fire Control computer for the 16" guns on the Battleships were still analog computers with the synchros, servos, electrical adders, etc. Those solved the fire control problem for the main guns and were in use well before WWII. I don't know if they solved differential equations, but they took a lot of inputs from dials and switches and instantly aimed the guns.
    While in the general area of the country to see a shuttle launch, I visited the USS Alabama museum and one of the tour locations was the fire control room. Your post led me to search for more info on 16" fire control and I found this very interesting article:

    Gears of war: When mechanical analog computers ruled the waves
    In some ways, the Navy's latest computers fall short of the power of 1930s tech
    Mar 2014

    https://arstechnica.com/information-...led-the-waves/
    "I don't make jokes. I just watch the government and report the facts." - Will Rogers

    "If you don't read the newspaper, you're uninformed. If you read the newspaper, you're misinformed." - Mark Twain

  4. #94
    Join Date
    31st January 2009
    Posts
    4,623
    Quote Originally Posted by dhbarr View Post
    Three dimensional cams. I love the Mk1/Mk1a.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rangek...ical_functions for more fun computer history.
    Cool. Thanks for that link.
    "I don't make jokes. I just watch the government and report the facts." - Will Rogers

    "If you don't read the newspaper, you're uninformed. If you read the newspaper, you're misinformed." - Mark Twain

  5. #95
    Join Date
    31st January 2009
    Posts
    4,623
    Beautiful:



    EUV Lithography Finally Ready for Chip Manufacturing
    This long-awaited technology will extend the life of Moore’s Law
    5 Jan 2018

    https://spectrum.ieee.org/semiconduc...-manufacturing

    Excerpt:

    EUV lithography’s reason for being is that it uses 13.5-nm light, which is much closer to the size of the final features to be printed. With it, manufacturers can turn three or four lithography steps into one. For its 7-nm EUV process, GlobalFoundries will replace 15 steps with just 5. John Lin, TSMC’s director of litho equipment and mask technology, says his company plans a similar reduction.

    While that will make the work at 7 nm faster and cheaper, it’s the nodes beyond where EUV will be absolutely crucial. “If you didn’t use EUV for 5 nm, it’d be more than 100 [lithographic steps],” says Patton. “That’d be insane.”

    Patton makes it sound as though EUV lithography arrived just in time, and in a way it has. But it has been a decades-long journey with many moments when one expert or another declared it dead. Its arrival in production now still seems a bit unbelievable to some observers.

    Throughout most of EUV’s history, the main problem has been the light source, and considering its complexity, that’s not surprising. In a vacuum chamber at one end of the machine, microscopic droplets of molten tin are fired in a stream as two laser blasts strike each of them sequentially. The first one hits the droplets so precisely that they flatten into misty discs. The second blasts them with so much power that they become little balls of plasma shining with EUV light.


    Light-source developers couldn’t provide the needed power for years, and they consistently overpromised and underdelivered. But now concerns about the light source have basically been put to rest. One source capable of outputting 205 watts of light is ready to ship, and ASML has demonstrated 250 W in the lab. “We are confident that ASML will achieve 250 W in the field in 2018,” says TSMC’s Lin.

    Even though most of the light is lost on its multireflector trip through the machine, that wattage will work even for the 5 nm node. But for 3 nm, analysts think that chipmakers will need 500 W, and maybe 1,000 W a couple generations further on for 1 nm. The former is doable through a combination of increasing the power of the drive lasers, improved efficiency at converting the laser energy to EUV light, and more precise stability and control. But the latter would require an absurd amount of power. The EUV tool and its associated drive lasers and other equipment I saw at GlobalFoundries draw about 1 megawatt to ultimately deliver just a few tens of watts of light power to the wafer. Caulfield tells me they had to add 10 percent to Fab 8’s power supply to accommodate the two EUV tools being installed for 2018.

    "I don't make jokes. I just watch the government and report the facts." - Will Rogers

    "If you don't read the newspaper, you're uninformed. If you read the newspaper, you're misinformed." - Mark Twain

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