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  1. #91
    Join Date
    30th January 2016
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    US > OK > NE
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    3,741
    Three dimensional cams. I love the Mk1/Mk1a.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rangek...ical_functions for more fun computer history.


  2. #92
    Join Date
    31st December 2009
    Location
    Las Cruces, NM
    Posts
    1,690
    Quote Originally Posted by Handeman View Post
    I learned a little about those types of computers and how they work while in the Navy in '81. The Fire Control computer for the 16" guns on the Battleships were still analog computers with the synchros, servos, electrical adders, etc. Those solved the fire control problem for the main guns and were in use well before WWII. I don't know if they solved differential equations, but they took a lot of inputs from dials and switches and instantly aimed the guns.
    Even the simplest PID servo controller solves a 2nd-order differential equation. The fire control systems started out fairly basic but evolved to include many more inputs, including ship-motion gyros, windage, etc. I was lucky to take two courses from Richard Miller in the late 70's. He worked for General Electric in Schenectady NY before and during WWII designing controllers for gun turrets. We had lab benches just as crazy looking as the one Winston posted (slightly more "modern"), plus large motors bolted to the floor. Still have the book he wrote and have used it over the years.

    -John

    NAR/TRA L3
    My LinkedIn Profile

  3. #93
    Join Date
    31st January 2009
    Posts
    4,847
    Quote Originally Posted by Handeman View Post
    I learned a little about those types of computers and how they work while in the Navy in '81. The Fire Control computer for the 16" guns on the Battleships were still analog computers with the synchros, servos, electrical adders, etc. Those solved the fire control problem for the main guns and were in use well before WWII. I don't know if they solved differential equations, but they took a lot of inputs from dials and switches and instantly aimed the guns.
    While in the general area of the country to see a shuttle launch, I visited the USS Alabama museum and one of the tour locations was the fire control room. Your post led me to search for more info on 16" fire control and I found this very interesting article:

    Gears of war: When mechanical analog computers ruled the waves
    In some ways, the Navy's latest computers fall short of the power of 1930s tech
    Mar 2014

    https://arstechnica.com/information-...led-the-waves/
    "I don't make jokes. I just watch the government and report the facts." - Will Rogers

    "If you don't read the newspaper, you're uninformed. If you read the newspaper, you're misinformed." - Mark Twain

  4. #94
    Join Date
    31st January 2009
    Posts
    4,847
    Quote Originally Posted by dhbarr View Post
    Three dimensional cams. I love the Mk1/Mk1a.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rangek...ical_functions for more fun computer history.
    Cool. Thanks for that link.
    "I don't make jokes. I just watch the government and report the facts." - Will Rogers

    "If you don't read the newspaper, you're uninformed. If you read the newspaper, you're misinformed." - Mark Twain

  5. #95
    Join Date
    31st January 2009
    Posts
    4,847
    Beautiful:



    EUV Lithography Finally Ready for Chip Manufacturing
    This long-awaited technology will extend the life of Moore’s Law
    5 Jan 2018

    https://spectrum.ieee.org/semiconduc...-manufacturing

    Excerpt:

    EUV lithography’s reason for being is that it uses 13.5-nm light, which is much closer to the size of the final features to be printed. With it, manufacturers can turn three or four lithography steps into one. For its 7-nm EUV process, GlobalFoundries will replace 15 steps with just 5. John Lin, TSMC’s director of litho equipment and mask technology, says his company plans a similar reduction.

    While that will make the work at 7 nm faster and cheaper, it’s the nodes beyond where EUV will be absolutely crucial. “If you didn’t use EUV for 5 nm, it’d be more than 100 [lithographic steps],” says Patton. “That’d be insane.”

    Patton makes it sound as though EUV lithography arrived just in time, and in a way it has. But it has been a decades-long journey with many moments when one expert or another declared it dead. Its arrival in production now still seems a bit unbelievable to some observers.

    Throughout most of EUV’s history, the main problem has been the light source, and considering its complexity, that’s not surprising. In a vacuum chamber at one end of the machine, microscopic droplets of molten tin are fired in a stream as two laser blasts strike each of them sequentially. The first one hits the droplets so precisely that they flatten into misty discs. The second blasts them with so much power that they become little balls of plasma shining with EUV light.


    Light-source developers couldn’t provide the needed power for years, and they consistently overpromised and underdelivered. But now concerns about the light source have basically been put to rest. One source capable of outputting 205 watts of light is ready to ship, and ASML has demonstrated 250 W in the lab. “We are confident that ASML will achieve 250 W in the field in 2018,” says TSMC’s Lin.

    Even though most of the light is lost on its multireflector trip through the machine, that wattage will work even for the 5 nm node. But for 3 nm, analysts think that chipmakers will need 500 W, and maybe 1,000 W a couple generations further on for 1 nm. The former is doable through a combination of increasing the power of the drive lasers, improved efficiency at converting the laser energy to EUV light, and more precise stability and control. But the latter would require an absurd amount of power. The EUV tool and its associated drive lasers and other equipment I saw at GlobalFoundries draw about 1 megawatt to ultimately deliver just a few tens of watts of light power to the wafer. Caulfield tells me they had to add 10 percent to Fab 8’s power supply to accommodate the two EUV tools being installed for 2018.
    "I don't make jokes. I just watch the government and report the facts." - Will Rogers

    "If you don't read the newspaper, you're uninformed. If you read the newspaper, you're misinformed." - Mark Twain

  6. #96
    Join Date
    31st January 2009
    Posts
    4,847
    A problem with REALLY thin wires:

    Cobalt Could Untangle Chips’ Wiring Problems
    Intel and GlobalFoundries are replacing some copper connections with the resilient, conductive metal

    https://spectrum.ieee.org/semiconduc...iring-problems

    Today’s computer chips contain tens of kilometers of copper wiring, built up in 15 or so layers.

    As the semiconductor industry has shrunk the size of transistors, it has also had to make these interconnects thinner. Today, some wiring layers are so fine that [TINY] electrical currents can actually damage them. And chipmakers are running out of new ways to deal with this problem.

    Copper boasts lower resistivity than aluminum, tungsten, and even cobalt. However, copper is particularly vulnerable to another problem at small scales called electromigration. As electrons speed through ultrathin wires, they dislodge atoms in the metal, bumping them out of the way like a harried commuter jostling a tourist off the sidewalk.

    To protect copper interconnects, the thin wires are lined with other materials, such as tantalum nitride or even cobalt. “Copper moves easily, and you need a 1- to 2-nm barrier to contain it,” says Kevin Moraes, a product manager at Applied Materials, a supplier of semiconductor equipment.

    As copper interconnects get smaller, the tantalum nitride liner remains relatively thick—it’s difficult to make the liner much thinner than a nanometer or so, and it reaches a point where there’s more liner than wire. “The liner steals area from the copper and raises line resistance,” says Edelstein.

    At IEDM, Intel reported that moving to cobalt interconnects for the *finest-featured two layers of its 10-nm process technology, where interconnects are smallest, reduces electromigration by a factor of 5 to 10 and lowers resistance by a factor of 2. These improved interconnects should help the semiconductor industry shrink transistors ever further—without tripping over a wiring problem.
    "I don't make jokes. I just watch the government and report the facts." - Will Rogers

    "If you don't read the newspaper, you're uninformed. If you read the newspaper, you're misinformed." - Mark Twain

  7. #97
    Join Date
    31st January 2009
    Posts
    4,847
    "I don't make jokes. I just watch the government and report the facts." - Will Rogers

    "If you don't read the newspaper, you're uninformed. If you read the newspaper, you're misinformed." - Mark Twain

  8. #98
    Join Date
    21st May 2016
    Location
    MD
    Posts
    74
    Got a coupon for a free SD card from microcenter, so I picked up a pi zero W. I'm thinking I'll set it up for on-board camera and maybe baro sensor for flight recording (not for recovery, as it has no clock and I don't think I'd rely on one for dd) Might have to cut a "Tux" sticker on my wife's cameo to add to the payload bay, or maybe a "Powered by Linux" sticker or something.
    ~Tom~

    NAR# 101538
    L1 - 12/17/17 Madcow Super Batray H170 @ MDRA

  9. #99
    Join Date
    31st January 2009
    Posts
    4,847
    From the comments:

    "Wow, I'm impressed you've been able to keep track of all those wires! How many times have you accidentally pulled out a wire you didn't mean to?"

    "1 time only actually! And it generated a bug that took me 2 days to find ?"

    "Replacing all the jumpers by short, straight wiring is one of the plans in the future Daniel It will improve my signals a lot. But for now they're ok!?"


    "I don't make jokes. I just watch the government and report the facts." - Will Rogers

    "If you don't read the newspaper, you're uninformed. If you read the newspaper, you're misinformed." - Mark Twain

  10. #100
    Join Date
    10th July 2007
    Location
    Melbourne, Australia
    Posts
    1,468
    I went to an engineering exhibition back in 1977 and saw the first Pong game that come to Australia. Amazing. Had to queue up for about 15 minutes to get a turn at it.

    I also remember trying a Russian laser rifle at the same show. Built and weighed like an AK-47, but had a laser for target practise.
    TRA 13430, Level 3

    "Everybody's simulation model is guilty until proven innocent" (Thomas H. Lawrence 1994)

  11. #101
    Join Date
    31st January 2009
    Posts
    4,847
    Robonaut Has Been Broken for Years, and Now NASA Is Bringing It Home
    A mysterious hardware problem has kept the ISS Robonaut out of action since at least 2015, so it's returning to Earth for a fix

    https://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/...inging-it-home





    "I don't make jokes. I just watch the government and report the facts." - Will Rogers

    "If you don't read the newspaper, you're uninformed. If you read the newspaper, you're misinformed." - Mark Twain

  12. #102
    Join Date
    31st January 2009
    Posts
    4,847




    "I don't make jokes. I just watch the government and report the facts." - Will Rogers

    "If you don't read the newspaper, you're uninformed. If you read the newspaper, you're misinformed." - Mark Twain

  13. #103
    Join Date
    31st January 2009
    Posts
    4,847
    Why AMD is going to absolutely CREAM Intel in price/performance even more than now until Intel does this, too.



    The advancements in general. Amazing:

    "I don't make jokes. I just watch the government and report the facts." - Will Rogers

    "If you don't read the newspaper, you're uninformed. If you read the newspaper, you're misinformed." - Mark Twain

  14. #104
    Join Date
    31st January 2009
    Posts
    4,847
    The widely used, 2 million dollar, 5,000 pound, 100 megabyte hard drive whose gyroscopic precession actually tipped a prototype military mobile computing center truck onto its side. How far we've come...:

    "I don't make jokes. I just watch the government and report the facts." - Will Rogers

    "If you don't read the newspaper, you're uninformed. If you read the newspaper, you're misinformed." - Mark Twain

  15. #105
    Join Date
    31st January 2009
    Posts
    4,847





    "I don't make jokes. I just watch the government and report the facts." - Will Rogers

    "If you don't read the newspaper, you're uninformed. If you read the newspaper, you're misinformed." - Mark Twain

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